IPCC undermines UK Climate Change Act

Oliver Geden, an energy and climate policy analyst from Germany, has given an interview “EU’s climate policy has lost its scientific basis”. He explains that the specific target that developed countries should aim for at least an 80% reduction in emissions by 2050, which was explicitly stated in IPCC AR4 (2007), is not present in AR5. This means that there is no longer any basis for EU emissions reduction policies targets.

The relevant section of AR4 is this table on page 776, chapter 13.

(thanks to Oliver for pointing me to this – I had never been sure where these targets came from). In the latest IPCC WG3 report published in full yesterday, there is no such table with specific targets. The relevant chapter is again chapter 13, where there are only rather vague discussions of “Climate policy architectures” (Sec 13.4) and proposed policies in Sec 13.13.2.

From the UK perspective, this is very relevant for the UK Climate Change Act. The act was passed in 2008, a year after AR4, and proposes exactly the same target as in the above table, an 80% reduction from 1990 levels by 2050. Since there is no equivalent statement in AR5, it appears that the IPCC has undermined the basis for the Climate Change Act.

IPCC Working Group III Report published

The report of IPCC WGIII, Mitigation of climate change, is now out.

The Summary for Policymakers (released on April 13) starts with a useful definition of what they mean by mitigation: “Mitigation is a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.”  But the first of the key points listed sets the tone of vague waffle and political correctness:  “Sustainable development and equity provide a basis for assessing climate policies and highlight the need for addressing the risks of climate change”. There is talk of “value judgements” and “other societal goals”. 

The report claims that without mitigation we will have a temperature rise of 3.7 to 4.8°C by 2100 (relative to “pre-industrial”) of which we have had 0.6°C. In other words they are predicting 3.1 to 4.2°C rise this century.  They even claim “high confidence” in this statement.  The fact that there has been no temperature rise at all over the first 1/7th of the century does not seem to be a concern to the IPCC authors, since they don’t mention it. There is an excessively long account of different scenarios and the associated claimed temperature rises. When it comes to the details of what mitigation actually means, the report is very vague. There is talk of energy efficiency and behaviour changes. Nuclear power is mentioned, but very hesitantly, with a list of  of “barriers and risks”. The report is  also rather hesitant about CCS, saying only that it could reduce emissions.  They are surprisingly positive about switching from coal to gas, describing it as a “bridge technology”.  There is a final section on “International cooperation” that is very vague, saying that the Kyoto Protocol “offers lessons”.

The BBC discusses the WGIII report under World must end ‘dirty’ fuel use.  The Guardian reported the press conference and summarised responses from carefully selected on-message commentators, and then issues a desperate self-righteous call to arms from Leo Hickman.  The Mail picks up on the surprising IPCC endorsement of gas and fracking. Robert Wilson criticises the report, saying that the IPCC needs a good kick up the arse”, in regard to what it says about bio-energy.  James Delingpole says that the report is ordering us to give up meat, coal, oil, growth and sovereignty. 

When the SPM was first released, it was directly available. But on 15 April, the following bizarre statement was placed on the page: The designations employed and the presentation of material on maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In order to get the SPM, you have to click “I agree” to proceed.

 

The main report was published a couple of days later, 15 April. Again, you have to “agree” to the disclaimer to get access to the full report.  There are 16 chapters, starting off with the vague concepts mentioned above (“Sustainable Development and Equity”) and going on to the more specific topics of Energy, Transport, Buildings and Industry.

One point of note is that in the Introductory chapter 1 there is a section
1.4.5 Rising Attention to Adaptation
that says: “For a long time, nearly all climate policy has focused on mitigation. Now, with some change in climate inevitable (and a lot more likely) there has been a shift in emphasis to adaptation”. Andrew Lilico and Robin Guenier might be interested to see this.

 

 

Warren Pearce et al. on IPCC tweets

Warren Pearce and Brigitte Nerlich,  from the University of Nottingham Institute for Science and Society, in collaboration with two researchers from Amsterdam, have published an interesting new paper looking at the twitter response to the launch of the IPCC WG1 Report (see also MSP blog post).  They collected tweets sent between September 17th and October 8th 2013 (recall that the IPCC Summary report was published on Sept 27th).  They included all tweets containing the term IPCC, whether or not they used the hashtag #IPCC, giving over 150,000 tweets. They then weeded this down (for example removing those that were about police complaints, and removing duplicates, retweets and ‘via’ tweets). They then cut down the number further, by focussing on ‘conversational’ tweets, i.e. those that included another @username, bringing the number down to about 60,000, involving about 11,000 twitter users.

There is a thoughtful discussion of ethical issues, where they say they decided not to mention any individuals in the paper, as doing so may “have unwanted side-effects” and “may bring them unwanted and disproportionate attention from those holding opposing views”.  A lot of nonsense could have been avoided if such ethical considerations had been adopted more widely.

For the 239 most connected twitterers, a network analysis was carried out, giving colour-coded network diagrams.  Some tweets were generated by a one-click campaign by an NGO called Avaaz – but apparently these don’t really influence the results. The network plots are colour coded and grouped. In one plot (fig 3), the colour indicates different types of communities; I don’t fully understand this (I guess the ‘communities’ are something the software does automatically), but they say that in the UK there are more connections between people with different viewpoints than in other countries. A second figure (fig 4) colour codes the network map according to whether the tweeter was supportive, neutral or critical of the IPCC. About half of the users were supportive, and a quarter critical. These results suggests that there is more ‘intermingling’ from the sceptic side: as they put it “attempts by unsupportive to connect with supportive were not always reciprocated”. In the conclusions there is a nice little dig at a very silly paper by Elsasser and Dunlap who claimed that climate sceptics live in an echo chamber.

From the maths point of view, there’s an interesting power law dependence in the graphs in Fig 1 and Fig 2 (the central sections of both log-log graphs form almost perfect straight lines).

Overall, I think this is quite interesting, and it studies the subject with a scientific, data-driven objectivity, which is more than can be said for some of the  social science research in the field.  As with Amelia Sharman’s paper on the sceptic blogosphere, some will say “we could’ve told you that”, but it’s good to see large data sets confirming general impressions.

 

Frontiers in Psychology vindicates Lewandowsky’s critics

Following a number of articles in the media making false claims about the retraction of Lewandowsky, Cook, Oberauer and Marriot’s “Recursive fury” paper, the journal Frontiers in Psychology  has issued a statement clarifying the situation.  They say that

 Frontiers did not “cave in to threats”; in fact, Frontiers received no threats.

The statement goes on to confirm what critics of the paper said about it in their complaints.

Frontiers came to the conclusion that it could not continue to carry the paper, which does not sufficiently protect the rights of the studied subjects. Specifically, the article categorizes the behaviour of identifiable individuals within the context of psychopathological characteristics.

We take this opportunity to reassure our editors, authors and supporters that Frontiers will continue to publish – and stand by – valid research. But we also must uphold the rights and privacy of the subjects included in a study or paper.

So they are saying that the paper was not ‘valid research’.

Here is part of what I wrote in my complaint to the journal, a year ago:
“The labelling of named individuals as conspiracy theorists in the text and accompanying table is contrary to the ethics of your field which requires individuals to be treated with respect.

Most of the excerpts listed as espousing conspiracy theory are no such thing. They merely point out errors and bias in his procedures. His response to criticism is to label his critics as conspiracy theorists.

Labelling individuals as conspiratorial, as this paper does throughout its text and in the accompanying data sheet, is derogatory and does not constitute treating participants with respect, even if such allegations were correct.”

Update 14 April:

Frontiers issued another statement on 11 April, Rights of Human Subjects in Scientific Papers, which reiterates the vindication of Lewandowsky’s critics.  They say “It is well acknowledged and accepted that in order to protect a subject’s rights and avoid a potentially defamatory outcome, one must obtain the subject’s consent if they can be identified in a scientific paper” and go on to add “While the subjects and their statements were public, they did not give their consent to a public psychological diagnosis in a scientific study. Science cannot be abused to specifically label and point out individuals in the public domain.”  Anthony Watts notes that “Frontiers agrees” with his complaints. 

Why UK climate change policies are pointless – Robin Guenier

Adaptation vs mitigation

Following the release earlier this week of the IPCC’s report on “Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability”, there has been much discussion of the idea that drastic mitigation (i.e. major reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) is just not going to happen, and that the realistic policy focus should be on adapting to global warming if/when it happens.

Robin Guenier’s paper

Robin Guenier has written a concise  paper on Why UK climate change policies are pointless, which includes references and a brief biography.  He explains that under the 1997 Kyoto agreement, developed countries were supposed to reduce emissions, but developing countries were not under any obligation. Since then, some developed countries have abandoned the agreement while emissions from other countries such as China have soared, leaving only the UK and some EU countries committed to reductions. The next climate conference will fail to achieve a global mitigation agreement, as all previous ones have.  Regardless of what one believes about the science of climate change, UK emissions reductions policies are pointless and damaging;  “we should come to terms with international political reality by prioritising a strong economy, underpinned by reliable affordable energy, and by focusing on long-term adaptation to whatever climate change may occur”.

Other related links

There have been so many articles saying much the same thing recently that it’s hard to keep up with them. But before we get too carried away by this theme, we should remember that the Monday’s IPCC Report was from Working Group II, “Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability”, so it is not too surprising that adaptation is being widely discussed.

Economist Andrew Lilico has written a series of articles on this subject:

Graham Readfearn in the Guardian reports that the IPCC has been putting out the same alarmist message since its first report in 1990, but since then, despite all the dire warnings, global emissions have gone up 60%.

The Today Programme on Monday (see two snippets here) discussed the increasing importance of adaptation.

Cambridge Professor of Engineering Michael Kelly  has written a document on the enormous costs of decarbonisation, concluding that “Adaptation as necessary should be pursued” while the case for “mitigation through decarbonisation of the economy remains unproven”.

Researchers from Manchester University call for more emphasis on building resilience to weather events.

Cliff Mass gives  A Biblical Lesson in Communication about Climate Change“Joseph did not propose taking action to stop the drought, but to promote adaptation and preparation for this severe climatological event”.

The IPCC report takes us from alarmism to adaptation says Simon Jenkins in the Guardian.

The Atlantic reports on  The UN’s New Focus: Surviving, Not Stopping, Climate Change.

This week’s Spectator features an article by Matt Ridley on how adapting to a warming planet is far more effective than trying to stop it.  He points out that it now appears that the IPCC agree with Lord Lawson, who made this argument in his 2008 book An Appeal to Reason.

Leon Clifford blogs on the dilemma of “effective adaptation versus costly curbs”.

The US Financial Post picks up the same theme.

 John Christy writes that drastic mitigation would cause energy costs to skyrocket, and he would prefer to see his grandchildren have wealth and energy, so they are able to face what the future climate might throw at them.

The Economist joins the chorus,  saying that the right policy is “to adapt to change, rather than attempting to stop it” (discussed at Bishop Hill).

Finally, here is a paragraph from the conclusion of Lawson’s book:

One of the central messages of this book is that, in the light of the uncertainty that exists about the science, and the inevitable uncertainty there is about the future in general, it must make more sense to rely on autonomous adaptation, buttressed where necessary with positive policy measures to assist it, than to pay a very heavy price to try and secure a drastic reduction in emissions without even any realistic likelihood of achieving this.

Update:

Josh illustrates the Ed Davey policy:

 

Sci Tech Comm report on climate communication

The Science and Technology Committee has issued a report (press release here with links to html and pdf versions of the report), following its long inquiry into Climate: Public understanding and policy implications.

The written submissions to the inquiry can be found here, and the transcripts of the oral evidence sessions here. It was soon clear, when the first people invited to speak were the Glasgow Media Group, a left-wing activist group with no mention of climate change on its website, that the inquiry was going to be a meaningless farce. There were twenty written submissions from sceptics, but only one sceptic, Andrew Montford, was invited to give evidence, among dozens of green and political activists and journalists.

The press release adopts a dictatorial, almost Stalinist tone: It is important that there is a “consistent message”,  and ministers “need to acquaint themselves with climate science and clearly and consistently reflect the Government approach in all their communications”, but ironically it ends with “Dogma on either side of the debate should be revealed as such”.

In the main report, the sceptic contributions are almost completely ignored, except for a mention from Philip Bratby of the use of internet resources, and Andrew Montford saying that people realise the main media sources are only telling one side of the story (para 56). The same two get a brief mention in paragraph 82, on lack of trust in scientists and the unremarkable fact that sceptics prefer to verify facts for themselves rather than trust everything they are told.

The Report is quite critical of the BBC, the Met Office and the Royal Society.  The criticism of the BBC is a bit muddled: what does “it lacked a clear understanding of the information needs of its audience with regards to climate science” mean? Regarding the Met Office, the criticisms are clearer: “we would have liked to have seen greater effort to communicate to the public on the publication of the IPCC AR5 report. It should have been more timely with information that should be far more accessible to the public at large.”  The report is equally blunt about the Royal Society: “The Royal Society is a publicly funded body with a responsibility to communicate about science. We encourage it to step up to that responsibility”. Apparently the RS was reluctant to contribute to the inquiry, but eventually did so in July, months after the official deadline.  “The written submission from the Royal Society was not as extensive as we expected” (it was just over 2 pages – shorter than my submission). The report goes on to tell the RS what it should spend its money on, as discussed by Bishop Hill.

The sheer stupidity of the report is summed up in its 13th and 14th conclusion/recommendations:

13. The Government’s hands-off approach to engaging with the public and the media, relying heavily on scientists as the most prominent voice, has a resulted in a vacuum that has allowed inaccurate arguments to flourish with little effective challenge.

14. If the Government is to demonstrate its climate policies are evidence based, it needs to be an authoritative and trusted voice which explains the current state of climate science. It is important that climate science is presented separately from any subsequent policy response. We recommend that the Government work with the learned societies and national academies to develop a source of information on climate science that is discrete from policy delivery, comprehensible to the general public and responsive to both current developments and uncertainties in the science.

Statement 13, with its talk of a ‘vacuum’ is utter nonsense, as shown by the fuss that was generated when Nigel Lawson was allowed to speak for three minutes on the Today programme back in February and is still going on.

Number 14, proposing a joint Government-academy source of information, shows their complete lack of understanding of the subject they have been studying for the last year. There are already dozens  (hundreds?) of websites supposedly giving the public the facts on climate change; what will one more achieve? Furthermore, the LWEC survey showed that the Government was one of  the least trusted of information sources.

By a strange coincidence, point 14 of my submission anticipated the stupidity of their point 14: “Any attempt to try to “correct” this, for example by some new Government initiative to improve public understanding of climate science, would be doomed to failure.”

There is a superb response from Peter Hitchens. I’m tempted to quote the best bits, but I won’t, so you have to go and read it.

 

 

Satire, spoofs and Poe’s law

An interesting feature of the LivefromGolgafrincham website discussed in the previous post, and in particular the thread on climate communication, is how many people did not realise that it was a spoof.   Even the blog proprietor, , Willis Eschenbach, a sceptic who posts regularly at WUWT, argued quite vociferously against the post, and continued to do so for some time after more and more hints were given. Perhaps more surprisingly, Geoff Chambers, who himself writes satirical articles such as the “Apocalypse close” series, seems to have been taken in, until the satirical nature of LFG was pointed out by Ian Woolley (who seems to have some inside knowledge about the LFG site).  On the other side of the fence, andthentheresphysics took a lot of convincing that it was satire, leading commenter OPatrick to wonder “I’m mystified. Did I look at a different blog from you lot?”

There does seem to be an increasing tendency for sceptics to ridicule the arguments of climate alarm.  Another such blog is Climate Nuremberg, which recently had a post on Why is it so hard to have a panicked, hysterical conversation about climate change?  Previous comments by this blogger have also been misinterpreted, see this post at WUWT, where the comment thread alternates between angry attacks and people saying the site is obviously satire.

Another spoof website is GreenTremayne, giving helpful tips on reducing your carbon footprint, and selling carbon credits.

The proclamations made in the name of global warming have become so absurd that they are difficult to parody.  For example, recently we have been told that climate change made it harder to find the missing Malaysian plane, and that the climate will “cross the dangerous warming threshold in 2036″.   Numberwatch has a list of things caused by global warming.  Roy Spencer laments that Global Warming is Destroying April Fools Day.

Of course there is a term for this effect – it’s known as Poe’s law:  “Without a blatant display of humor, it is impossible to create a parody of extremism or fundamentalism that someone won’t mistake for the real thing.”